How-To: A how-to is an informal, often short, description of how to accomplish some specific task. A how-to is usually meant to help non-experts, may leave out details that are only important to experts, and may also be greatly simplified from an overall discussion of the topic. The correct way to write it in English is "how-to.".
Tutorial: Internet computer tutorials can take the form of a screen recording, a written document (either online or downloadable), or an audio file, where a person will give step by step instructions on how to do something. While many writers refer to a mere list of instructions or tips as a tutorial, this usage can be misleading.
Walkthrough: The term is often used in the world of learning where a tutor/trainer will walk through the process for the first time. It is regarded as a literal walk through of the learning at the groups pace ensuring that everyone takes in the new knowledge and skills.
FAQ: Frequently asked questions, or FAQs are listed questions and answers, all supposed to be frequently asked in some context, and pertaining to a particular topic. Depending on usage, the term may refer specifically to a single frequently asked question, or to an assembled list of many questions and their answers.
Op-Ed: Articles that run opposite the editorial page. They are a response to current editorials and topical subjects. Political op-eds are the most common, but they don’t have to be limited to politics. They should, however, reflect items that are current and newsworthy.
Column: A short newspaper or magazine piece that deals specifically with a particular field of interest, or broadly with an issue or circumstance of far-reaching scope. They appear with bylines on a regular basis (daily, weekly, etc.). They may be written exclusively for one newspaper or magazine, they may be marketed by a syndicate, or they may be self-syndicated by the author.
All definitions from Wikipedia.