Encode and Decode Strings with Base64 in JavaScript

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Published in: JavaScript

Google Scripts offer the Utilities.base64Encode() and base64Decode() methods to easily encode and decode strings in base64 respectively. You can do Base64 encoding and decoding in plain Javascript as well. Here’s the un-minified code to help you understand what happens behind the scene.

var Base64 = {
    _keyStr: "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/=",
    encode: function(e) {
        var t = "";
        var n, r, i, s, o, u, a;
        var f = 0;
        e = Base64._utf8_encode(e);
        while (f < e.length) {
            n = e.charCodeAt(f++);
            r = e.charCodeAt(f++);
            i = e.charCodeAt(f++);
            s = n >> 2;
            o = (n & 3) << 4 | r >> 4;
            u = (r & 15) << 2 | i >> 6;
            a = i & 63;
            if (isNaN(r)) {
                u = a = 64
            } else if (isNaN(i)) {
                a = 64
            }
            t = t + this._keyStr.charAt(s) + this._keyStr.charAt(o) +
                this._keyStr.charAt(u) + this._keyStr.charAt(a)
        }
        return t
    },
    decode: function(e) {
        var t = "";
        var n, r, i;
        var s, o, u, a;
        var f = 0;
        e = e.replace(/[^A-Za-z0-9\+\/\=]/g, "");
        while (f < e.length) {
            s = this._keyStr.indexOf(e.charAt(f++));
            o = this._keyStr.indexOf(e.charAt(f++));
            u = this._keyStr.indexOf(e.charAt(f++));
            a = this._keyStr.indexOf(e.charAt(f++));
            n = s << 2 | o >> 4;
            r = (o & 15) << 4 | u >> 2;
            i = (u & 3) << 6 | a;
            t = t + String.fromCharCode(n);
            if (u != 64) {
                t = t + String.fromCharCode(r)
            }
            if (a != 64) {
                t = t + String.fromCharCode(i)
            }
        }
        t = Base64._utf8_decode(t);
        return t
    },
    _utf8_encode: function(e) {
        e = e.replace(/\r\n/g, "\n");
        var t = "";
        for (var n = 0; n < e.length; n++) {
            var r = e.charCodeAt(n);
            if (r < 128) {
                t += String.fromCharCode(r)
            } else if (r > 127 && r < 2048) {
                t += String.fromCharCode(r >> 6 | 192);
                t += String.fromCharCode(r & 63 | 128)
            } else {
                t += String.fromCharCode(r >> 12 | 224);
                t += String.fromCharCode(r >> 6 & 63 | 128);
                t += String.fromCharCode(r & 63 | 128)
            }
        }
        return t
    },
    _utf8_decode: function(e) {
        var t = "";
        var n = 0;
        var r = c1 = c2 = 0;
        while (n < e.length) {
            r = e.charCodeAt(n);
            if (r < 128) {
                t += String.fromCharCode(r);
                n++
            } else if (r > 191 && r < 224) {
                c2 = e.charCodeAt(n + 1);
                t += String.fromCharCode((r & 31) << 6 | c2 & 63);
                n += 2
            } else {
                c2 = e.charCodeAt(n + 1);
                c3 = e.charCodeAt(n + 2);
                t += String.fromCharCode((r & 15) << 12 | (c2 & 63) <<
                    6 | c3 & 63);
                n += 3
            }
        }
        return t
    }
}

var str = "The quick brown fox";
console.log(Base64.encode(str));
Published in: JavaScript

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Amit Agarwal

Amit Agarwal is a Google Developer Expert in GSuite and Google Apps Script. He holds an engineering degree in Computer Science (I.I.T.) and is the first professional blogger in India. Read more on Lifehacker and YourStory

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